Dani Rodrik has an interesting post on the influence of the Ottoman Empire's influence on European secularism. The research courtesy of a Turkish scholar (appropriately) finds that European religious conflict was negatively correlated with incursions from the Ottomans.
Rodrik is a economist at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and is notable for his stance on trade and globalization which he does not view to be an unmitigated good. Though, nor do I think it fair to describe a trade skeptic. Anyways, check it out.